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2010年11月湖南成人教育学位英语真题和答案详解
发布时间:2016年05月13日 来源:湖南大学自考办

201011月湖南成人高等教育统一考试
学士学位英语真题

Part I Dialogue Completion (15 points)
Directions: There are 15 short incomplete dialogues in this part, each followed by 4 choices marked A, B, C and D .Choose the best one to complete the dialogue and mark your answer on the ANSWER SHEET with a single line through the center.
1. Speaker A: That was a great dinner. You must have spent all day cooking.
Speaker B:         .
A. Yes, it was really very tiring.
B. No, it’s really nothing.
C. No, it’s only a casual meal.
D. Thanks. But it only took two hours.
2. Speaker A: I tried to buy you those towels you wanted on sale, but they only had these really ugly ones left. Sorry.
Speaker B:         . They are not bad.
3. Speaker A: What’s your favorite food?
  Speaker B: Pizza.
  Speaker A:          . I prefer chocolate ice cream.
  A. Not me.                                    B. So do I.
  C. Same here.                                  D. You got it.
4. Speaker A: This computer keeps giving me trouble.
  Speaker B: Try restarting it.        .
  A. See if that helps.                             B. I can do nothing about it.
  C. Who knows?                                D. What else?
5. Speaker A: Susan, I can’t get my old job jacket. It’s a lost cause.
  Speaker B:         .
  A. Can’t you? It serves you right.
  B. I understand. You’ll find something else.
  C. Yes, I know it’s not a good cause.
  D. Lost?Maybe I can help you find it.
6. Speaker A: I had no idea the movie would end like that.
  Speaker B:       . I was really surprised.
  A. Me either.                                 B. Me alike.
  C. I think so.                                 D. Not that I know.
7. Speaker A: I’m a little scared about the operation.
  Speaker B:        , honey. The doctors will be there every step of the way.
  A.You know what.                            B. That’s good.
  C. Don’t worry.                               D. That’s it.
8. Speaker A: Who left the refrigerator door open?
  Speaker B:         . I haven’t been in the kitchen all day.
  A. Don’t look at me.                          B. You ask for it.
  C. You bet.                                  D. Don’t be silly.
9. Speaker A: Could you get me Extension 1058, please?
  Speaker B:          .
  A. Yes. This is operator speaking.
  B. OK. Here you are.
  C. No. I’m busy now.
  D. Sorry. The line is busy.
10. Speaker A: You’ve been the first place winner in this writing contest. Congratulations!
    Speaker B:          .
A. Yes. It’s quite easy for me.                 
B. It’s very kind of you to say so.
C. Thank you for the good news.
D. Not at all. It’s nothing.
11. Tourist: Excuse me; I’d like to go to the British Museum.        
   Police: No, not really. It’s about a ten-minute walk.
A. Can I walk there?
B. Where is it?
C. Is it far from here?
D. Could you show me the way?
12. Speaker A: Hi, Linda. The train leaves at 10 pm and I could pick you up at 9.
   Speaker B:        .
A. I think so.                            B. I can’t wait.
C. Good for you.                         D. That’s fine with me.
13. Speaker A: Sorry, I didn’t catch the last train.
   Speaker B:         .
A. Don’t be sorry.                         B. Do you want me to repeat it?
C. What else, please?                      D. I’m afraid that’s it.
14. Speaker A: You must be Teddy. Thanks for coming.
   Speaker B: Yes,          
A. I’m fine. Thank you.                   
B. I am. And you are…?
C. Here I am.
D. Who’s speaking please?
15. Speaker A: I wonder if you could tell me where to get map?
   Speaker B:          .
A. I don’t know where you want to go.
B. I have never heard about it.
C. Sure, but I really have no idea.
D. Well, maybe in the post office or bookstore.
PART II Reading Comprehension (40 points )
Directions: There are 4 passages in this part. Each of the passages is followed by 5 questions or
unfinished statements. For each of them there are 4 choices marked A,B,C and D. Choose the best one and mark your answer on the ANSWER SHEET with a single line through the center.
Passage one
Just as Mrs. Waldman hands out the spelling test, you see Jeff pull out a small piece of paper with a lot of words on it. Jeff hides the note into his closed fist but soon takes it out again. While he’s taking the test, you see him looking back and forth between the teacher and his paper. There’s no mistaking it---he’s cheating.
Cheating is when a person misleads, deceives, or acts dishonestly on purpose. For kids, cheating may happen at school, at home, or while playing a sport. If a baseball team is for kids who are 8 or younger, it’s cheating for a 9-year-old to play on the team.
At school, in addition to cheating on a test, a kid might cheat by stealing someone else’s idea for a science project or by copying a book report off the internet and turning it in as if it’s his or her original work.
One is inclined to cheat because it makes difficult things seem easy, like getting all the right answers on the test. But it doesn’t solve the problem of not knowing the material and it won’t help on the next test---unless the person cheats again.
Sometimes it may seem like cheaters have it all figured out. They can watch TV instead of studying for the spelling test. But other people lose respect for cheaters and think less of them. The cheaters themselves may feel bad because they know they are not really earning that good grade. And, if they get caught cheating, they will be in trouble at school, and maybe at home, too.
Some kids cheat because they’re busy or lazy and they want to get good grades without spending the time studying. Other kids might feel like they can’t pass the test without cheating. Even when there seems to be a “good reason” for cheating, cheating isn’t a good idea.
16. Why did Jeff look at the teacher from time to time while taking the test?
   A. He was afraid that the teacher might find out what he was doing.
   B. He had a question for the teacher but was afraid to ask.
   C. He wanted to get the teacher’s attention.
   D. He wanted to hand in his paper as he was done with it.
17. According to the author, cheating       .
   A. occurs mainly in test-related settings
   B. can take on various forms and happen anywhere
   C. usually happens when one is doing a science project
   D. happens when we don’t know the answer to a question
18. What can’t cheating help to do?
   A. To pass examinations.
   B. To get a satisfactory score.
   C. To make difficult things easy.
   D. To really get the knowledge.
19. Which of the following statements is closest in meaning to “cheaters have it all figured out” (Para.5)?
   A. Cheaters know they won’t be caught.
   B. Cheaters make a plan in advance.
   C. Cheaters can reach a balance between work and play.
   D. Cheaters clearly know the consequences of cheating.
20. The main purpose of the passage is to          .
   A. inform readers why people cheat
   B. predict possible consequences of cheating
   C. persuade students to quit cheating
   D. discuss different occasions when people cheat
Passage Two
Experts say over half of the world’s seven thousand languages are in danger of disappearing. Every two weeks one language disappears.
Sometimes a language disappears immediately when the last person speaking it dies. Or, a local language might disappear more slowly. This happens when an official language is used more often and children stop learning the local language of their parents. Official languages often represent a form of control over a group of people.
Throughout history, the language spoken by a powerful group spreads across a civilization. The more powerful culture rarely respects the language and culture of smaller groups. Smaller cultures lose their local language as the language of the culture in power has a stronger influence.
Experts say protecting languages is very important for many reasons. Languages contain the histories, ideas and knowledge of a culture. Languages also contain valuable information about local medicines, plants and animals.
Many endangered languages are spoken by native cultures in close contact with the natural world. Their ancient languages contain a great deal of information about environmental systems and species of plants and animals that are unknown to scientists. As the last speakers of a language die off, the valuable information carried within a language also disappears. Language is, in many ways, a window to the mind and the world.
Any hope for protecting languages can be found in children and their willingness to learn. It is these young people who can keep this form of culture alive for future generations.
21. Which of the following is true?
   A. No one can prevent languages from disappearing.
   B. There will not be any local languages left some day.
   C. There have existed 7,000 languages in history.
   D. Half of the world’s languages will possibly disappear.
22. An official language is a language that       .
   A. is highly advanced                       B. has a stronger influence
   C. competes with a local language             D. has a longer history
23. Language is a window to the mind and the world because        .
   A. it contains information about both culture and nature.
   B. it represents the working of the human minds
   C. local languages are more closely related to culture
   D. ancient languages can reveal ancient people’s thoughts
24. According to the passage, a language will be better protected when        .
   A. it is linked to a powerful culture
   B. people are forced to speak it
   C. it keeps pace with the times
   D. children are interested in learning it
25. The passage mainly discusses         .
   A. language and culture                      B. the power of language
   C. language protection                       D. local languages
Passage Three
There’s a professor at the University of Toronto in Canada who has come up with a term to describe the way a lot of us North Americans interact these years. And now a big research study confirms it.
Barry Wellman’s term is “networked individualism.” It’s not the easiest concept to grasp. In fact, the words seem to contradict each other. How can we be individualistic and networked at the same time? You need other people for networks.
Here’s what he means. Until the Internet and e-mail came along, our social networks involved flesh-and-blood relatives, friends, neighbors, and colleagues at work. Some of the interaction was by phone, but it was still voice to voice, person to person, in real time.
But the latest study by the Pew Internet and American Life Project confirms that for a lot of people, electronic interaction through the computer has replaced a great deal of social interchange. A lot of folks Pew talked with say that’s a good thing, because of concerns that the Internet was turning us into hermits(隐居者) who shut out other people in favor of a make-believe world on computer screens.
To the contrary, the Pew study discovered. The Internet has put us in touch with many MORE real people than we’d have ever imagined. Helpful people, too. We’re turning to an ever-growing list of cyber friends for advice on careers, medical crises, child-rearing, and choosing a school or college. About 60 million Americans told Pew that the Internet plays an important or crucial role in helping them deal with major life decisions.
So we networked individuals are pretty tricky: we’re keeping more to ourselves, while at the same time reaching out to more people, all with just the click of a computer mouse!
26. The Pew study was conducted in         .
   A. Latin America                        B. Canada
   C. the United States                      D. Europe
27. In this passage, the network refers to a lot of connected        .
   A. friends                              B. people
   C. computers                           D. roads
28. Before the invention of the Internet, our connections with people took place mainly         .
    A. in person                            B. by phone
    C. by letter                             D. by e-mail
29. Which of the following has happened since the invention of the Internet?
    A. People talk on the phone more than ever.
    B. Much personal interaction has given way to computer interaction.
    C. Americans are getting more isolated.
    D. Americans have become more dependent on computers.
30. According to the Pew study, the role played by the Internet in human interaction is      .
    A. neutral                             B. negative
    C. unclear                             D. positive
Passage Four
President Obama has signed legislation to make the biggest changes in the health care system in forty-five years. Many parts of the plan will fully take effect in four years. But some take effect quickly. For example, in six months the new law will ban insurance companies from denying coverage to children with pre-existing health conditions. Adults with pre-existing conditions will be added in four years.
The government will help millions of people pay for insurance. It will also permit millions more to receive free coverage through the Medicaid program for the poor. In all, the plan aims to make health insurance available to 32 million people now without it. Illegal immigrants will not be able to take part.
An estimated 83% of people under 65 who are in the US legally now have insurance coverage. The plan is expected to raise that to 95% within several years. People over 65 are covered by the Medicaid insurance program which the government created in 1965.
For the first time, Americans will be required to have health insurance or face a yearly fine starting in four years. The law will also require companies with more than 50 employees to offer coverage. If not, they could face a fine of $2,000 a year for every worker.
Also, this year the law will start closing what is known as “the doughnut hole”. That is a lack of Medicaid coverage for some drug costs for older Americans. President Obama promised senior citizens that the reforms will not cut their guaranteed benefits.
The changes are expected to cost about $940 billion over ten years, but also help reduce the federal budget deficit.
31. According to the new health care plan, which of the following will be added first into insurance programs?
   A. Employees of small companies.
   B. Adults with pre-existing health conditions.
   C. Poor people now without health insurance.
   D. Children with pre-existing health conditions.
32. It can be inferred from the passage that the new Medicaid program for the poor will       .
   A. provide free health insurance for 32 million people
   B. provide free health insurance for all poor people
   C. be also applied to legal immigrants
   D. cover 83% of the people under 65
33. It seems that at present, large companies that do not offer health insurance coverage to their employees          .
   A. face heavy fines
   B. do not receive punishments
   C. are required to do so
   D. do not benefit from doing so
34. The “doughnut hole” implies that          are not covered by the existing Medicaid program.
   A. some drug costs for older Americans
   B. senior citizens over 65
   C. illegal immigrants
   D. expensed for hospital stay
35. Generally speaking, President Obama’s health insurance reform will        .
   A. bring heavy financial burdens to the country
   B. pose heavy financial burdens to the poor
   C. benefit both the people and the country
   D. be welcomed by the poor but opposed by companies. 
PART III  Vocabulary and Structure (20 points)
Directions : There are 40 incomplete sentences in this part. For each sentence there are 4 choices marked A, B, C and D. Choose the one that best completes the sentences. Mark your answer on the ANSWER SHEET with a single line through the center.
36. You can arrive in Guangzhou on time for the fashion show___you don’t mind taking the night train.
A. provided        B. unless        C. though           D. until
37. The students are still taking about the strange people they___on their trip.
A. meet                 B. had met       C. were met         D. met
38. The players expected there___more free time after going back to the country from abroad.
A. is                        B. being         C. have been        D. to be
39. The man who___stopped from time to time as if he wanted to tie his shoelaces.
A. was being followed              B. was to followC. had followed                         D. was once followed
40. ___has finished the task ahead of time will be rewarded, though we don’t know who it will be.
A. Those who        B. Anyone      C. Whoever        D. Who
41. At last I decided to pay a visit to my new general manager as soon as I ___.
A. finish what I did        B. finished what I did    C. would finish what I was doing        D. finished what I was doing
42. These two countries are similar ___they both have a high snowfall during winter.
A. to that          B. besides that        C. in that         D. except that
43. They were surprised that a four-day-old boy should work out such a difficult problem___they themselves couldn’t.
A. once          B. then        C. while         D. if
44. Word has come ___a large number of the British Airway employees will go on strike next week.
A. that              B. what        C. when         D. whether
45. We would say it’s the best use that ____this money.
A. could be made of           B. could be made          C. could we make          D. could make of
46. It’s getting late. We____leave now, or we’ll miss the last bus.
A. had rather             B. had better           C. would rather            D. would better
47. It is ____that a hundred people can dance in it.
A. so large a room                      B. so a large room
C. such large a room                    D. a such large room
48. I can never thank you____much for your help. Without it, I couldn’t have finished my paper.
A. so           B. too           C. as           D. very
49. When I met her this morning, she had this ____look on her face. She must have worked late last night.
A. tire     B. tired      C. tiring        D. tiresome
50. Hawaii is ____a palace to relax; it’s also a marvelous spot to surf.
A. much as      B. less than       C. more than     D. rather as
51. I cannot believe that he____my offer.
A. turned on     B. turned off      C. turned down   D. turned over
52. It was one of the most beautiful scenes I had ever set my eyes____.
A. to           B. on            C. off           D. for
53. Though the Chinese medicine tastes____, it surely helps.
A. bad          B. badly         C. worse         D. worst
54. Night ____, the girl studying in her room switched on the light to do more reading.
A. is falling      B. has fallen      C. fell           D. having fallen
55. Doctors have said that as many as 50 percent of patients don’t take medicine____directed.
A. like          B. so            C. which         D. as
56. The traditional approach to dealing with complex problems is to       into smaller, more easily managed ones.
A. break them down        B. take them down     C. make them up       D. bring them up
57. Since man depends        such a great extent on forests, every effort must be made to preserve trees and wildlife.
A. on           B. in          C. to          D. at
58. Many animals that lived thousands of years ago are now      .
A. extinct       B. existent        C. distinct         D. diverse
59. The government gave a very      explanation of its plans for the development of electronic industry.
A. comprehensible         B. comprehensive      C. expressive        D. intensive
60. Many students____because they are not prepared for our challenging program.
A. turn out        B. fall out        C. let out         D. drop out
61. When she said she would be ready to help us out, she____well.
A. meant          B. pointed        C. looked        D. sensed
62. A dynamic free-market system can generate prosperity and progress on a global      .
A. size            B. scope          C. scale         D. dimension
63. More flight ____ will be opened across the country with the fast growth of tourism.
A. roads           B. ways           C. paths        D. routes
64. Please____your telephone message by writing to me.
A. infer           B. inform          C. confirm      D. contact
65. Red Cross is____ the operation to fly in supplies to the refuges.
A. in touch of                         B. in charge of
C. in honor of                         D. in pursuit of
66. Your debt situation is only temporary, and it is within your____to resolve it.
A. position         B. strength         C. power         D. right
67. Suffering was easier to____than the bitterness he felt destroying his spirit.
A. bear            B. resist          C. take          D. put
68. Most recent opinion polls suggest that the____between the two parties has narrowed.
A. distance         B. gap            C. lag          D. disagreement
69. Due to the fog, the flight will be cancelled---we apologize for any____.
A. discomfort      B. bother          C. difficulty      D. inconvenience
70. They had mistaken me for Williams, but during dinner the confusion was____.
A. raised up             B. backed up             C. mixed up              D. cleared up
71. I should have gone with my first____, which was not to do the interview.
A. emotion         B. instinct         C. response       D. sense
72. In the meantime, the question facing the committee is whether such research is ____the costs.
A. worth           B. value           C. worthy        D. valuable
73. We can accept your order____payment is made in advance, including the transportation expenses.
A. in the belief that         B. in order that          C. on the excuse that            D. on condition that
74. The project manager asked his assistant if it was possible for him to_____the investment plan within a week.
A. look out              B. make out           C. work out            D. hold out
75. To be truly successful, you must recognize what ____ you and what your life interests are.
A. maintains       B. motivates      C. dominates      D. determines
 Part IV Cloze Test (10 points)
Directions: There are 10 blanks in the following passag . For each numbered blank , there are 4 choices marked A,B, C and D. Choose the best one and mark your answer on the ANSWER SHEET with a single line through the center.
 Mass immigration has benefited the economy greatly over the past ten years, a report claims today.
It has helped avoid    76  of labor and skilled workers and the economy has been able to stay on a “stable growth path”,  77   the Work Foundation.
Interest and inflation rates have also been kept    78   as a result of people coming to work in Britain--- and this has not led to lower wages for workers or  79   unemployment levels. “The government has had hard time over immigration, not because it has lost control of the issue, 80   because it has failed to tell a convincing story  81  steady high-quality information,” the report claims.
“The official statistics are so irregular that the government finds  82   difficult to defend otherwise good policies.” The Work Foundation is calling for work restrictions  83  Romanians and Bulgarians to be relaxed. The countries joined the European Union last year but their citizens do not have full    84    to move to Britain.
The findings contrast with a recent House of Lords report,   85   said there was no evidence to suggest immigration generated significant economic benefits for the country.
 76. A. neglect       B. shortage      C. ignorance        D. lacking
77. A. seeing to      B. owing to      C. according to      D. referring to
78. A. lesser         B. less          C. fewer           D. lower
79. A. affected       B. effected       C. infected         D. selected
80. A. and           B. or           C. either           D. but
81. A. linked to       B. based on      C. interested in     D. taken in
82. A. them          B. it            C. that            D. this
83. A. to            B. for           C. on             D. at
84. A. powers        B. forces        C. rights           D. strengths
85. A. which         B. it            C. this            D. that
 Part V   Writing (15point)
Directions: You are to write in 100-120 words about the title “The Problem(s) I Face(d) on My Job”. You should base your composition on the outline given in Chinese below:
 职场打拼不容易
我在职场(曾经)遇到的问题是······
解决的办法是······
结论

201011月湖南成人高等教育统一考试
学士学位英语答案详解

参考答案及精解
 PartⅠ. Dialogue Completion (15 points)
1. D  在回答对方赞扬时,英语中习惯的回答是“谢谢”。因此D为正确答案。
2. C  当对方为所做的事情表示“歉意(sorry)”时,英语中习惯的回答不是“批评”。ABD三个答案都有“批评”的意思。因此C为正确答案。
3. D  “Not me”的意思是“不是我;我不行;我不适合”;“So do I”的意思是“我也一样”;“Same here”的意思是“我也是,彼此彼此”;“You got it”的意思是“没问题,你干掉它!给你啦!”。针对说话人B回答“Pizza”时,说话人A说他自己喜欢巧克力冰激凌。根据此情景,说话人A应该是赞同说话人B的观点,但是自己却有不同的选择。因此选项D为正确答案。
4. A  当说话人A对电脑表示抱怨时,说话人B回答道“把电脑重启吧!”这是在给出建议,与此建议相搭配的应该是A答案“看看会不会好一点:是否有用”;B答案表达的是“无能为力”;C答案表达的是“谁知道?”;D答案表达的是“还有啥?”
5. A  “It’s a lost cause.”是句习语,其意思是“没希望了”。C答案当中的“cause”和D答案当中的“Lost”都误解了习语当中的意思,B答案与说话人A的话不相关。A答案表达的是一种责备。“It serves you right!”的意思是“活该”。
6. A  A答案的意思是“我也是”,用于强调含否定意义的短语;没有“Me alike”这种表达;C答案用于肯定的认同;D答案应该是“Not that I know of”,其意思是“我不知道;据我所知不是那样”。因此选项A为正确答案。
7. C  You know what?(你知道吗?);That's good!(太好了!);Don’t worry(不用担心);That’s it.(对;就是这样了;就这么回事;就是如此了)。说话人A表示了对手术的恐惧,说话人B对其进行了安慰。因此C选项为正确答案。
8. A  Don’t look at me(别看着我,与我无关!);You ask for it!(活该;自找的!);You bet!(你可确信;的确;当然!);Don’t be silly!(别傻了;别犯傻)。根据上下文,A选项为正确答案。
9. D  说话人A说:“麻烦接分机1058.”该句话并不是真正意义上的疑问句,所以回答不用“Yes”或者“No”。B答案:“好的,给你”不符合对话场景。D选项“对不起,您要的电话正忙”符合该打电话场景。
10. C  说话人A对说话人B表示祝贺,习惯的回答首先是“谢谢!”C选项“Thank you for the good news”(非常感谢你的这个好消息)符合题意,为正确答案。
11. C  游客说“想去大英博物馆”,警察回答“不,不是很远。大约十分钟的路程”,这说明游客问的是“远近”问题。根据情境,C选项符合该场景。
12. D  I think so(我也这样认为);I can’t wait(我迫不及待);Good for you!(好得很!真服了你;对你有好处);That’s fine with me.(好;没问题;我没意见)。说话人A说“火车10点出发,我9点钟能够来接你”,根据四个选项的意义,D选项符合该场景。
13. A  说话人A对未能赶上最后一趟火车而感到歉意,英语中习惯的回答不是“批评”。因此A选项“请不必说抱歉”符合该场景。
14. B  说话人A说“你肯定就是特迪。欢迎你来!”,这表明说话双方应该相互不认识。“I’m fine. Thank you.”是对“How do you do?”的回答。“Here I am.”的意思是“我是;我到了;我就在这里”。“Who’s speaking please?”是电话用语。因此B选项“我是特迪。请问你是......?”符合此情景。
15. C  选项AB答非所问。“I wonder if you could tell me where to get map?”是个一般疑问句,对其肯定的回答一般用“Yes”或者“Sure”。因此答案选C。
 PartⅡ. Reading Comprehension (40points)
 Passage 1
 16. A 细节推断题。根据“There’s no mistaking it---he’s cheating.”和“you see him looking back and forth between the teacher and his paper”,我们可以推断出Jeff害怕(afraid)被老师发现其作弊。
17. A 细节分析题。B选项当中的“anywhere”,C选项当中的“usually”,以及D选项当中的“happens when we don’t know the answer to a question”均未在文章中出现。从“At school, in addition to cheating on a test,”可以得出“mainly in test-related settings”的分析结果。
18. D  细节推断题。文章第四段第二句“But it doesn’t solve the problem of not knowing the material…”与“can’t help to really get the knowledge”意义对应,由此可知答案为D项。
19. D 单词释义题。“have it all figured out”意为“弄明白什么事情;把事情搞清楚了”,这与D选项当中的“clearly know the consequences of cheating”意义对应。因此D选项为正确答案。
20. C 文章主旨题。文章最后一句话“Even when there seems to be a “good reason” for cheating, cheating isn’t a good idea.”表明了文章的主旨——“quit cheating”。
 参考译文:
    正当沃德曼太太分发拼写试卷时,你看见杰夫拿出一张上面写满密密麻麻词语的小纸片。杰夫把它藏在自己紧握的拳头中,但是很快又把它拿了出来。当他正在进行考试时,你看见他的目光来来回回地在老师与试卷间徘徊。错不了——他在作弊。
    当一个人出现故意误导、欺骗或不诚实行为时,这就是作弊。对于孩子来说,舞弊可能发生在学校,家庭或进行一场运动比赛时。如果一支棒球队只能由8岁或更小的孩子组成的话,那么9岁孩子参与其中便是一种作弊。
    在学校,除了试卷上的作弊,小孩子也可能通过盗取他人在科学项目上的思想或通过网络抄袭读书报告,并把它作为是自己的原创作品提交上去而作弊。
    一个人倾向于作弊是因为作弊似乎让复杂的事情看起来简单了,就像能够获得试卷上的正确答案一样。但是作弊并不能帮你解决你所不知道的问题,而且它对下一次考试也无益——除非这个人继续作弊。
    有时候作弊者似乎是一切都明白。他们可能看电视而不去为了拼写测试学习。但是其他人却对这些作弊者失去了尊重,并且看不起他们。作弊者自己也许会因为他们自己参了水分的成绩而感觉糟糕。而且,如果他们作弊被抓,他们在学校将陷入麻烦之中,可能在家里也难逃麻烦。
    一些孩子作弊是因为他们很忙或者很懒,不想花时间学习就想得到好成绩。其他一些孩子认为自己如果不作弊的话就无法通过考试。即使当每一次作弊都看上去理由充分时,但作弊不是个好主意。
 Passage 2
 21. D  细节分析题。A选项当中的“No one”和B选项当中的“not be any”都是非常绝对的答案,文中没有提及。C选项当中的“7,000 languages in history”属于过度概括,文中也没有提及。D选项当中的“will possibly disappear”是对文章第一段第一句的正确解读。
22. B  细节分析题。根据文章第二段第二句当中所提及的official language “is used more often” and “often represent a form of control over a group of people.”,我们可以得出official language has a stronger influence。选项ACD均未在文中提及。
23. A  细节分析题。第四段第二、三句“Languages contain the histories, ideas and knowledge of a culture. Languages also contain valuable information about local medicines, plants and animals.”中包含了“culture and nature”的信息,由此可分析出A选项为正确答案。BCD当中的“the working of the human minds”,“more closely”和“reveal ancient people’s thoughts”文中均未提及。
24. D  细节分析题。由文中最后一段第一句“Any hope for protecting languages can be found in children and their willingness to learn. 可推断选项D正确,其余各项文中均未提及。
25. C  文章主旨题。文章第四段第一句“Experts say protecting languages is very important for many reasons.”是主题句,而且文章最后一句提到“It is these young people who can keep this form of culture alive for future generations.”,而“this form of culture”指的就是“language”,由此可知C项正确。
 参考译文:
     专家说世界上的7000种语言,大约有超过一半以上的语言面临着消失的危险。每两个星期就有一种语言消失。
    有时候当最后一个懂这门语言的人死了,这一种语言也就立即消失了。或者,一种当地的语言也许会更加缓慢地消失。当一种官方语言被更加广泛地使用,孩子们不再学习他们父母当地的语言,这种情况就会发生。官方语言往往代表着对一群人的一种控制。
    纵观历史,一个强势群体所使用的语言会扩展到其文明。这种更具影响力的文化很少尊重那些弱小种族的语言和文化。当强势群体的语言起着更加强大影响力的时候,弱势群体便失去自己的地方语言。
专家们有充分理由来说明保护语言是十分重要的。语言包含着一种文化的历史、思想以及知识。语言也同样包含着一些关于当地医学、植物和动物的有价值的信息。
    许多濒临灭绝的语言是被那些与自然世界紧密相连的当地文化所使用。他们古老的语言中蕴含着许许多多关于环境体系和科学家们未知动植物种类的信息。当这门语言最后的掌握者离去时,这一种语言中所携带的有价值的信息也就消失了。从众多角度来说,语言是心灵和世界的一扇窗。
    保护语言的希望可以从孩子们身上以及他们学习语言的意愿当中找到。能够为我们将来的子孙后代保存这种文化形式的人正是这些年轻人。
 Passage 3
 26. C 细节推断题。由文章第四段第一句话“the Pew Internet and American Life Project”和第五段的最后一句“About 60 million Americans told Pew”可知C项正确。
27. B 细节推断题。文章第二段第二句提到“Until the Internet and e-mail came along, our social networks involved flesh-and-blood relatives, friends, neighbors, and colleagues at work.”,中间的“relatives, friends, neighbors, and colleagues at work”指的都是“people”,由此可知B项正确。
28. A 细节推断题。由文章第二段第三句“Some of the interaction was by phone, but it was still voice to voice, person to person, in real time.”中的“person to person”可知A项正确。
29. B 细节推断题。由文章第四段第一句“electronic interaction through the computer has replaced a great deal of social interchange.”可知B项正确。
30. A 文章主旨题。从文章最后一段“So we networked individuals are pretty tricky...”可以看出作者中立的观点,因此A项正确。
 参考译文:
    加拿大多伦多大学的一名教授提出了一个术语,这个术语描述了我们很多北美人近年来的互动方式。并且一项重大的研究调查证实了这一点。
    巴利·威尔曼的术语是“网络个体主义 ”。这并不是个容易理解的概念。实际上,这两个字看上去自相矛盾。我们怎么可以同时做到个性化并且网络化?你需要其他人来组建你的网络。
    这是他一直所认为的。在互联网和电子邮件的到来之前,我们的社交网络涉及有血有肉的亲戚、朋友、邻居以及共事的同事。其中一些交流是靠手机,但是仍然是实时的声音对声音,人与人之间的交流。
    但是佩尤研究中心“网络与美国生活项目”的最新研究证实,对于大多数人来说,通过电脑的电子互动已经替代了一大部分的社会交流。互联网正在让我们成为拒绝其他人而支持电脑屏幕上的虚幻世界的隐居者,因为对此的关心,佩尤研究中心所调查的很多人认为这是件好事。
    相反,佩尤研究中心的研究表明:互联网让我们接触到的人比我们真实想象到的要多得多,同时还很用帮助的人。为了寻求有关求职、医疗风险、小孩抚养和选择学校或大学的建议,我们正在不断扩大网络交际面。大约有6000万美国人通过佩尤研究中心认为互联网在帮助他们作出人生的重要抉择时起着一个至关重要的作用。
    所以我们这些网络化的个人很是滑稽:我们自己不愿意与人交际,与此同时又去接触更多的人,我们所需要做的仅仅是点击一下鼠标。
 Passage 4
 31. B  细节推断题。文章第一段最后一句提到“Adults with pre-existing conditions will be added in four years.”(四年之内,有过往病史的成年人也将纳入投保范围),由此推断答案为B。
32. A  细节推断题。由文章第二段第三句“In all, the plan aims to make health insurance available to 32 million people now without it.”(总之,该计划目的在于为目前没有医疗保险的三千两百万美国人提供保险。)可知A项正确。
33. B  细节推断题。文章第四段第二、三句句提到“The law will also require companies with more than 50 employees to offer coverage. If not, they could face a fine of $2,000 a year for every worker.”(该法律还要求拥有超过50名雇员的公司参保。否则,他们将面临2,000美元每人每年的罚款。),这就意味着现在没有对应的惩罚。由此可知B项正确。
34. A  细节推断题。文中第五段第二句提到“That is a lack of Medicaid coverage for some drug costs for older Americans.”(这指的是医疗保障项目对美国老年人使用的某些药物费用缺少覆盖。),由此可知A项正确。
35. C  文章主旨题。从文章第二段第一句“The government will help millions of people pay for insurance.”和文章最后一句“...but also help reduce the federal budget deficit.”可知奥巴马的医疗改革将“benefit both the people and the country”。因此C项正确,其余各项文章均无提及。
 参考译文:
 
    奥巴马总统已经签署法律,对医保体系进行45年来最大的改革。这项计划的许多部分需要四年时间才能全面生效,但是其中一些措施将很快生效。例如,六个月之内,新的法律将禁止保险公司拒绝为存在过往病史(pre-existing conditions)的儿童投保。四年之内,有过往病史的成年人也将纳入投保范围。
    政府将帮助数百万人支付保险费用,还将允许数百万人通过低收入人口医疗保障计划(Medicaid program)获得免费覆盖。总之,该计划目的在于为目前没有医疗保险的三千两百万美国人提供保险。但非法移民将不能参加。
    现在,预计83%合法居住在美国的65岁以下的人口被保险覆盖,该计划期望在几年之内将医保覆盖面提升至95%。65岁以上人口由政府在1965年设立的医疗保障项目(Medicare)提供保险覆盖。
    四年之内,美国民众将第一次被要求参加医疗保险,否则每年都将面临罚款。该法律还要求拥有超过50名雇员的公司参保。否则,他们将面临2,000美元每人每年的罚款。
    今年,该法律还将关闭所谓的“甜甜圈洞”。这指的是医疗保障项目对美国老年人使用的某些药物费用缺少覆盖。奥巴马总统向年长市民承诺,医疗改革不会削减他们的保证利益。
这项长达10年的计划预计将耗资9400亿美元,但是同时帮助削减了联邦预算赤字。
 Part III. Vocabulary and Structures (20 points)
 36. A  provided 引导句子时有“假定”之意。provided(常 ~ that;表条件)在…条件下;倘若,假若,只要 (only if);unless 除非,如果不 (= if…not);though虽然;尽管;until在…以前;直到…时。题干意思:如果你不介意乘坐这趟夜间火车的话,你就能够准时到达广州赶上时装秀。
37. D  本题考查时态。旅途中的“遇见”是过去发生的动作,因此排除A(一般现在时)和C(被动语态);B选项(过去完成时)一般与过去式组合。因此正确答案为D。题干意思:学生们正在谈论他们在旅途中遇见的陌生人。
38. D  本题考查There be的用法。“There being”通常表示“已经存在”的事情。“There to be”可以用作一个动词的宾语,我们通常称之为复合宾语,其意义常表示对将来的一种意愿或希望,但目前还没“存在”。题干意思:这群运动员期望回国之后有更多的自由时间。
39. A  本题考查过去进行时被动语态的用法。本句所强调的是“正在”被跟踪,因此要用过去进行时的被动语态。题干意思:被跟踪的这个人时不时地停下来,好像是想去系鞋带。
40. A  本题考查的是名词性从句引导词。“will be rewarded”是真正的谓语动词,前面应当是名词性定语从句做主语。A选项“Those who”与“who it will be(单数)”相矛盾;B选项应当是“Anyone who”;D选项与题意不符。题干意思:虽然我们不知道这个人是谁,但是无论谁提前完成此项工作都将获得奖励。
41. D  根据题意,as soon as所引导的时间状语从句中,谓语动词finish所发生的时间为“过去将来”。这里的“过去将来”要用一般过去时来表示,不用过去将来时,因而选项D是正确答案。as soon as所引起的时间状语从句中,用一般过去时表示“过去将来”时间的用法,类似于用一般现在时来表示“将来”时间的用法。题干意思:最后我决定一做完手头的工作就去拜访我的新任总经理。
42. C  besides that此外;in that意为“因为”;except that只可惜;除了…之外。题干意思:这两个国家的情形相似,因为冬季降雪很多。
43. C  while是并列连词,意为“而,却”,前后有对比的意味。题干意思:一个四天大的男孩竟然能够解决如此有难度的问题,而他们自己却不能,对此他们很是惊讶。
44. A  that可引导同位语从句,说明被修饰名词的内容。题干意思:有消息称下周很多英国航空公司职员将参加罢工。
45. A  这个一个主语从句,it 指代 that 后面的内容。be made of 是固定词组,意为“利用”。题干意思:我们可以说这是这笔钱的最好用处。
46. A  had rather宁肯,宁愿;had better最好;would rather宁愿,宁可;would better应该,必须。题干意思:天不早了。我们最好马上就走,否则就赶不上最后一趟班车了。
47. A  引导结果状语从句的句型主要有:so+adj(adv)+that从句;so+adj+a(an)+n+that从句;such+a(an)+adj+n+that从句。表示“这样……(一个)……以至于……”。题干意思:这么大的一座房子以至于可以容纳一百个人一同跳舞。
48. B  I can never thank you too much.意为“我无论怎么感谢你都不为过(多)——即感激不尽。”类似的表达还有 I can’t agree more——非常赞同。题干意思:对你的帮助我表示感激不尽。若是没有你的帮助,我不能完成我的论文。
49. B  tire轮胎,使疲倦,厌烦,劳累;tired疲倦的,疲惫的,感到疲倦;tiring累人的;tiresome 令人厌烦,无聊的,吃力的。题干意思:今天早上碰到她时,她一脸疲惫,昨天肯定是工作到很晚。
50. B  much as(虽然,尽管)表让步;less than小于,决不,毫不;more than不仅仅是,超过;rather as不是标准词组。题干意思:夏威夷不仅是个休闲天堂,同时还是个飘浪的绝佳地方。
51. B  turned on打开,发动;turned off关上,出产,解雇;turned down关小,调低,拒绝; turned over翻过来,翻倒;移交,交;仔细考虑。题干意思:他拒绝我所开出的条件,我简直不能相信。
52. B  set eyes on是固定词组,意为见到,望见。题干意思:这是我见过的最漂亮的景色之一。
53. A  taste在这里做感官系动词,后面接形容词做补足语,说明主语情况,类似的系动词还有feel, sound, smell。题干意思:这中药虽然尝起来苦,但肯定是有帮助的。
54. D  本题的后半部分是主句,真正的谓语动词是switched on。Night引导的是从句,having fallen是现在分词完成式,做状语。题干意思:夜幕降临时,在房里学习的这个女孩打开了灯,想接着读。
55. D  as directed为as they are directed的省略形式,as引导方式状语,意为“象…”而like为介词,不可引导从句。当从句中的主语与主句中的主语一致时,从句中的主语和谓语动词的一部分可以省略。题干意思:医生们说有百分之50之多的病人不按说明书用药。
56. B  break down分解;take down记下,拿下,拆卸,病倒;make up弥补,组成,化妆,整理,捏造;bring up提出,教育,养育,呕出,(船等)停下。题干意思:对于复杂问题的解决办法一般就是把问题分成多个小一些,简单一些的问题来处理。
57. C  to such a great extent意为“这么大的程度上”。题干意思:由于人类这么大程度上依赖深林,因此我们应尽一切的努力以保护树木和野生动物。
58. A  extinct灭绝的,绝种的,熄灭的;existent生存者,存在的;distinct明显的,独特的,清楚的,有区别的;diverse不同的,多种多样的,变化多的。题干意思:许多生活在几千年以前的动物现在已经没绝了。
59. B  comprehensible可理解的;comprehensive广泛的,综合的;expressive有表现力的;intensive加强的,集中的,加强语气的。题干意思:政府对电子工业发展的规划作了详尽的解释。
60. D  turn out生产,结果是,关掉,出动,驱逐;fall out脱落,争吵,离队;let out放出,泄露,出租;drop out退出,退学,脱离。题干意思:许多学生因为没有准备好应对我们的挑战性项目而中途退出了。
61. A  she meant well意为“她是好意的”;pointed指出;looked看起来;sensed感觉。题干意思:当她说她准备帮助我们摆脱困境时,她是好意的。
62. C  size大小,尺寸;scope范围,余地,视野,眼界,导弹射程;scale规模,比例,鳞,刻度,天平,数值范围;dimension维,尺,次元,容积。on a global scale是个固定词组,意为“全球规模的,全球性的,全球范围内”。题干意思:一个有活力的自由市场体系能够在全球范围内促成繁荣与进步。
63. D  road公路,道路,手段;way方法,道路,方向,行业,习惯;path道路,小路,轨道;route路线,航线,通道,flight routes航线。题干意思:随着旅游业的快速增长,国与国之间将开辟更多的航线。
64. C  infer推断,推论;inform通知,告诉,报告;confirm进一步证实,确定,支持;contact联系,接触。题干意思:请给我来封信,好进一步证实你在电话中传达的消息。
65. B  in touch of可接近的,可做到的,可达到的;in charge of负责,主管;in honor of向…致敬,向…表示敬意,为庆祝…;in pursuit of寻求,追求。题干意思:红十字会负责向难民空运供给。
66. C  position位置,职位,姿态;strength力量,强度,力气,兵力,长处;power力量,势力,动力;right正确,右边,正义,权利。within one’s power意为“力所能及”。题干意思:你的债务状况只是暂时,你有能力解决。
67. A  bear结果实,忍受,具有,支撑;resist抵抗,忍耐,忍住;take拿,取,采取,吃,接受;put放,表达,移动,安置,赋予。题干意思:与他感觉自己的精神被摧毁的苦恼相比,身体的痛苦更加容易忍受。
68. B  distance距离,远方,疏远,间隔;gap间隙,缺口,空白;lag落后,迟延,防护套,囚犯,桶板;disagreement不一致,争论,意见不同。题干意思:最近绝大多数民意调查表明两党之间的隔阂已经缩小。
69. D  discomfort不适,不安;bother麻烦,烦恼;difficulty困难,困境;inconvenience不便,麻烦。题干意思:由于大雾,本次航班取消。由此给您带来的不便,敬请原谅。
70. D  raised up举起,抬起;backed up支持,援助,(资料)备份,倒退;mixed up混淆,拌和,调和;cleared up澄清,清理,放晴,打扫。题干意思:他们将我误认为是威廉了,但是这种误会在晚餐期间被澄清了。
71. B  emotion情感;情绪;instinct本能,直觉,天性;response响应,反应,回答;sense感觉,官能;观念,道理,理智。题干意思:我应该跟着我的第一直觉走,那就是不去做那次采访。
72. A  worth值…的,价值,财产;value价值,重要性,价格,评价,估价,重视;worthy值得的,有价值的,配得上的,相称的,可尊敬的,应…的,杰出人物,知名人士;valuable有价值的,贵重的,可估价的,贵重物品。be worth something = be worth doing something = be worthy of something = be worthy to be soemthing = be worthy of doing something。题干意思:在此同时,委员会面临的问题是这样的研究是否值得这笔花费。
73. D  in the belief that相信……;in order that目的是……;on the excuse that作为……的辩解;on condition that以……作为条件。题干意思:我们接受你的订货,条件是必须提前付款,还得包括运输费用。
74. C  look out注意,向外看;make out辨认,明白,写出;work out(=develop, devise, arrange)制订,设计;hold out坚持,伸出,提供,维持,抵制,主张,扣留。题干意思:项目经理问他的助手能否在一周之内完成(制定出)投资方案。
75. B  maintain维持,继续,维修,主张,供养;motivate刺激,使有动机,激发…的积极性;dominate控制,支配,占优势,在…中占主要地位;determine决定,判决,使…下定决心。题干意思:要想获得真正的成功,你必须认识到激励自己的是什么以及自己的生活兴趣是什么。
 Part . Close
 76. B  neglect疏忽,忽略,怠慢;shortage不足,缺少,短缺;ignorance无知,愚昧,不知,不懂;lacking缺乏的,没有的,不足的。
77. C  seeing to注意,留心;owing to由于,因为;according to根据,按照,取决于,据……所说;referring to关于;提及;参阅。
78. D  low interest rate低利息率,low inflation rate低通货膨胀率。
79. A  affected受到影响的;effected实现了的;受影响的;infected被感染的;selected挑选出来的。
80. D  本题考查的是对“not...but”的掌握,意为“不是……而是”
81. B  linked to链接到,把……和……连接,把…和…联系起来;based on以……为基础,基于;interested in对……有兴趣;taken in对……加以考虑;收进。
82. B  it做形式宾语。find后面常加形式宾语,再加形容词,最后加带to 的动词不定式。不定式短语to defend otherwise good policies做finds的宾语,difficult是宾语补足语。
83. C  restrictions on表示“对……的限制”,类似的用法还有lift sanctions on撤消制裁;impose  sanctions on进行制裁;实施制裁。
84. C  power力量,势力,动力;force力量,武力,军队,魄力;right正确,右边,正义,权利;strength力量,强度,力气,兵力,长处。have rights to do sth有权利去做某事。
85. A  which引导非限制性定语从句,指代“House of Lords report”。
参考译文:
今天的一份报道宣称,在过去十年里,国家的经济已经大大地得益于大量的移民。
根据工作基金会的报道,移民的到来已经帮助国家避免了劳动力和熟练工人的短缺,经济能够在“稳定发展之路”上继续得以保持。
由于人们来到英国工作,利息和通货膨胀率也被保持在低水平——而且这并没有导致工人工资更低和失业状况受到影响。报道宣称,“政府对移民问题一直感到很费劲,不是因为掌控不了移民问题,而是因为政府未能够传递一个基于稳定高质量信息且有说服力的信息。”
“官方的统计数据是如此之混乱,以至于政府发现很难去为本来就很好的政策进行辩护。”工作基金会呼吁应该放松对罗马尼亚人和保加利亚人的工作限制。这两个国家去年加入了欧盟,但是其公民却没有足够的权利移居英国。
这些研究与上议院最近的一份报告相冲突,上议院的报告称,没有证据表明移民为英国产生了显著的经济效益。
 Part Writing
                     The problems I faced on my job
        It is universally acknowledged that it is hard to survive in the battlefield of career. Numerous problems may occur even if we are well-prepared.
        I still remembered the most difficult problem I encountered on my job is about how to get along with my colleagues. It seems quite easy on the surface, but at that time I tried my utmost to establish a harmonious relationship with them and I failed. First, it is hard to deal with my female colleagues.           What I tell them today is what other colleagues know tomorrow. It is impossible for them to keep words. Second, I find difficulty in communicating with my supervisor. It seems he is never satisfied with my work.
        I tried several ways to improve the situation. For my female colleagues, I made it a rule that I will never talk about other colleagues’ privacy with them. I never make any negative comments. Instead, I use positive words to describe other people. For my supervisor, I tried to communicate with him when he is less impatient and moody. People tend to accept others’ opinions when they are relaxed and in a happy mood. I find this method very helpful.
        Now I am a senior staff in my company. When problems occur, it is no use complaining about them. My own experience is good example to show that problems can be solved successfully. 


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